Pain in the lumbar region is a clinical symptom of pathological changes in various tissues. Muscle cramps and overexertion occur at a young age, and osteochondrosis and its complications at a more mature age. In the elderly, any pain can be considered a sign of a compression fracture of the vertebral body in the background of the development of osteoporosis.
The causes and methods of treating lower back pain discussed in the article are identifiable information. It just gives you a general idea of what's going on in your body. But that does not replace expert advice. If you have any discomfort in the lumbar and sacral region, seek medical help immediately. It is best to make an appointment with a vertebrologist or neurologist. These doctors have the necessary level of professional training in the treatment of spinal diseases.
For these purposes, we recommend that you choose a manual therapy practice in your place of residence. Usually there are doctors who have extensive practical experience in working with patients suffering from pathologies of the spine and other parts of the musculoskeletal system.
Before you start treating low back pain at home, you need to make an accurate diagnosis. The fact is that the pain syndrome can be caused by various pathological reactions. The most common types of violations are:
- consequences of traumatic effects on bone tissue - fractures and cracks of the vertebral body and their processes;
- stretching and microscopic rupture of fibers in ligaments, tendons and paravertebral muscles;
- formation of hematomas after soft tissue injury - exerts pressure on the nerve fiber;
- inflammation - may be due to prolapse of the intervertebral hernia, aseptic reaction to trauma, the introduction of an infectious agent (for example, in tuberculosis of the spine);
- degenerative dystrophic process of destruction of intervertebral discs;
- rupture of fibrous disc rings;
- tissue ischemia on the background of disturbances in the processes of blood supply and innervation;
- compression (for example, due to instability of vertebral body position or their displacement).
The spinal column is an anatomically complex structure. It consists of vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and detachable end plates. There are longitudinal and transverse ligaments around the spine, paravertebral muscles. Inside the spinal canal, formed by the vertebral bodies and arch processes, is the spinal cord. This is the central structure of the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for the functioning of the entire human body. The innervation is carried out thanks to the radicular nerves that extend from the spinal cord through the lateral openings in the vertebral bodies.
The intervertebral disc holds the vertebral bodies at a certain distance that separates them. And thanks to that, there is no effect of compression on the radicular nerves and their branches. They do not become inflamed and do not experience ischemia due to impaired blood supply. If there is a decrease in muscle fiber activity in the area of intervertebral cartilaginous discs, then the quality of diffuse nutrition is sharply reduced. And cartilaginous intervertebral discs do not have their own blood vessels. This causes a reduction in their height, compression of nerve fibers and other soft tissues near the spine. Of course, this process is accompanied by a strong pain syndrome in the lumbar region.
Next, let's talk about the potential causes of pain - diseases and risk factors for their development.
The main reasons for lower back pain
So, let’s start with the fact that there are a lot of big muscles in the lumbar region. Some of them are responsible for bipedal locomotion, support the body in an upright position and allow for various body movements (tilts, turns, turns, etc. ).
These muscles are made up of myocytes. Which cell does the nerve ending and its own blood vessel - capillary fit into. With any violation of innervation or blood supply, muscle performance decreases sharply. For example, if a person has subjected the lower back to excessive physical activity, then the muscle fiber spasms. In this condition, it is unable to conduct nerve impulses and acts compressively on capillaries. There are foci of ischemic reaction and trigger points (places where mismatched contraction and relaxation of myocytes occur). These conditions may disappear on their own. But in most cases, fibromyalgic pain syndrome can last for several years and requires the help of an experienced chiropractor.
Other potential causes of lower back pain include:
- degenerative dystrophic destruction of the cartilaginous fiber of the intervertebral discs (osteochondrosis);
- complications of osteochondrosis in the form of protrusion and extrusion of intervertebral discs, hernia prolapse and its sequestration;
- instability of the position of the discs and the body of the vertebrae relative to each other in the form of weakness or deformity of the ligament and tendon apparatus;
- movement of the vertebral body by type of antelistesis, retrolisthesis or lateroslisthesis;
- curvature of the spine, violation of posture, including thoracic scoliosis, complicated by twisting and obliqueness of the pelvic bones;
- spinal canal stenosis, including due to dorsal intervertebral hernia prolapse or vertebral body displacement;
- compression fracture of the vertebral body or fissure of its process;
- stretching and rupture of the longitudinal or transverse ligament;
- deforming spondylarthrosis, in which the amplitude of mobility in the projection of the intervertebral joint may decrease;
- destruction of iliac-sacral joints;
- destruction of the joint between the occiput and sacrum;
- tumor and infectious pathologies of spinal cord and spinal cord tissues;
- inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity and pelvic organs;
- piriformis and cauda equina syndrome.
These are just some of the possible causes of lumbar pain. Keep in mind that only an experienced doctor can make an accurate diagnosis based on examinations and additional clinical examinations. Therefore, you should not engage in self-diagnosis and treatment. This can lead to sad consequences for your body.
Be sure to consult an experienced doctor, he will determine the reasons why the lower back hurts and prescribe a treatment that will allow you to repair damaged tissues without harm to your health.
What symptoms should you look out for?
Any disease that causes low back pain causes the appearance of additional symptoms. You should pay attention to them so as not to waste time and contact a specialist who deals with the treatment of such diseases.
So, let's start with the most common. This is osteochondrosis and its consequences. In such a disease, in addition to pain, there is stiffness of movement, muscle tension in the lumbar region. Difficulty sitting or standing for long periods of time. I want to take a forced position. With such manifestations, it is worth scheduling an examination by a vertebrologist.
If the pain spreads along the lower extremities, radiates to the groin, anterior abdominal wall, there is a bowel disorder, there are areas of numbness of the skin, then it is advisable to visit a neurologist. This means that the nerve fiber is trapped. Only a neurologist will be able to determine at what level the nerve is damaged and how this compression can be removed quickly and safely.
Treatment in case of back and lower back pain due to violation of tissue integrity is carried out by a traumatologist. After restoring tissue integrity, it is necessary to undergo a rehabilitation course with a manual therapist. Therefore, if a traumatic effect has occurred and a pain syndrome has occurred after that, contact an ambulance first.
If you experience frequent urination, fever, muscle aches, headache, consult a local therapist to rule out urinary tract pathology. If possible, make an appointment with a nephrologist.
In women, lower back pain can be associated with damage to the genitals, so a gynecologist's consultation is necessary. Men are advised to visit an andrologist or urologist. It is also always worth ruling out damage to the tissues of the rectum and lower parts of the colon.
If you feel back pain in the lumbar region, an X-ray of the lumbosacral region is prescribed. On it, the doctor can see indirect signs of osteochondrosis, deforming spondylarthrosis, disc protrusion, etc. MRI examination is necessary to confirm or refute the diagnosis. According to his conclusion, the doctor can diagnose intervertebral hernia, spinal canal stenosis, etc. To rule out pathology of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis, ultrasound and colonoscopy are performed.
Treatment of back pain in the lumbar region
It is necessary to start the treatment of back pain in the lumbar region by removing the factors of negative influence. If it is a matter of reducing the height of the intervertebral disc, then it is necessary to stop the compression of nerve fibers and soft tissues around the spinal column. The easiest way to achieve this effect is to perform manual traction of the spine. Already after the 2nd session, patients feel significant relief from their condition. But that does not mean a complete recovery.
In order to completely restore the damaged cartilaginous tissue of the intervertebral discs, it is necessary to carry out the entire treatment. It may include the following types of therapeutic effects:
- massage of the muscular frame of the back and lower back - allows you to normalize the tone of muscle fibers, restore its performance, increase capillary blood supply and trophism;
- osteopathy in the treatment of pain in the lumbar region allows you to eliminate infiltrative swelling of soft tissues by improving the microcirculation of blood and lymph fluid;
- reflexology initiates regeneration processes using the hidden reserves of the human body;
- therapeutic exercises and kinesitherapy in the treatment of back pain in the lumbar region occupy a proud place, allow you to completely restore the work of all muscles;
- physiotherapy is used to improve metabolism at the cellular level.
We recommend treating low back pain in manual therapy clinics. The doctors there have gained vast practical experience in treating such patients. If you have lower back pain, in no case do not treat yourself. This is dangerous for your health.