Translated from the ancient Greek language, osteochondrosis means ὀστέον - bone and χόνδρος - cartilage, and is characterized by complex degenerative changes in the articular elements of the bone skeleton. Almost every part of the skeletal framework is susceptible to this neurological disease. The thoracic and / or cervical discs of the vertebrae may be in the affected area. However, it is precisely osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, whose symptoms and treatment are most common in modern conditions, that is the reason for discussion and concern of neuropathologists.
Pathogenesis or development of an inflammatory process
Every organism in the process of growing up changes its physiology. As a result, diffuse changes occur in the vascular bed of the intervertebral discs of the skeleton. The supply of nutrients to the lumbar spine is complicated by various traumatic conditions and / or constant dynamic loads on this part of the spinal frame. Inadequate nutrition with the necessary microelements is further complicated by osteochondrotic processes that lead to the loss of the characteristics of elasticity and strength of cartilage joints. In osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, the symptoms of the disease are most active with asymmetric and irrational work of the spinal muscles, which are detected in different conditions:
- insufficient heating of muscle tissue;
- wrong posture;
- congestion of the intervertebral joints due to excess adipose tissue;
- use of mattresses on a soft surface during night rest;
- sharp mechanical and / or dynamic loads on the lumbar spine;
- physical stress;
- with exacerbation of chronic pathologies.
The supply of nutrients to the lumbar spine is complicated by various traumatic conditions and / or constant dynamic loads on this part of the spinal frame.
If lumbar osteochondrosis is detected, the symptoms of a neurological disease due to untimely medical intervention can lead to more serious neurological pathologies, for example, sciatica, spinal hernia, intervertebral disc injury and other complications.
Why does lumbar osteochondrosis occur?
To date, the problem of diffuse transformations in the intervertebral space has not been fully studied. With osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, the symptoms of manifestations of neurological pathology are often felt by middle-aged people aged 35 to 45 years.
Nervous overload, stressful situations can also lead to the onset of the disease.
At this most efficient age, there is a static and dynamic strain on the spine. However, according to the observations of experts, back pain is starting to bother more and more people of the younger age group. Thus, already in the period from 18 to 25 years, young people become patients of the neurological treatment department. This is due to poor physical activity, overweight, poor posture and general deformity of the joints, which cause lumbar osteochondrosis.
Symptoms and treatment of neurological pathology, it is desirable to identify and adequately respond to it at the earliest stage of the disease.
Other causative factors that lead to osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine include:
- hereditary forms;
- insufficient supply of cartilage vessels with micronutrients;
- violation of metabolic processes due to various circumstances;
- uneven development of musculoskeletal structure;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- physical disorders associated with the work of the endocrine system;
- weakening of muscle structure due to the harmful effects of alcohol, smoking and other bad habits;
- consequence of various chronic pathologies;
- segmental instability of spinal column elements;
- nervous overload, stressful situations and other components.
However, when diagnosing osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine, symptoms of neurological pathology in women may be diagnosed due to disorganization or the development of disorders associated with hormonal changes. At the age of 35 to 45 years, the female body begins to experience significant physiological transformations, which affects the functional work of all bone and cartilage areas of the spine.
Symptomatic signs of the disease
In osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral region, the symptoms of neurological pathology are felt with pain in the lumbar region, leading to numbness, discomfort, and a feeling of pain in the lower back. Lack of adequate adequate therapy can complicate the situation and lead to complete atrophy of the muscular structures in the lumbosacral spine. The increase in pain can be caused by various factors, for example, sneezing, coughing, sharp turns and lifting heavy objects. Incisions that occur in the lumbar region are most commonly given to the gluteal region and lower leg lower leg. With lumbosacral osteochondrosis, the symptoms of neurological disease can be determined by the following signs:
- giving off acute excruciating pain in the sacral spinal region and in the organs in the pelvic region;
- loss of sensitivity;
- discomfort in the innervated muscles of the lumbar spine;
- hypotension and hypotrophy.
All of these symptomatic signs result from nerve root damage in the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine.
Stages of the disease
When diagnosing lumbosacral osteochondrosis, the symptoms and treatment of the disease depend on the stage of the inflammatory process. Thus, according to the results of the diagnostic examination, it is possible to identify several specific signs of lumbar spine inflammation:
- The first phase is determined by mild pain in the lumbar zone, which intensifies under the influence of physical exertion. Only with sudden movements does the patient feel sharp, aching, or dull pain in the lower back. In a relaxed state, the pain does not occur.
- The second stage is determined when the distance between the vertebral discs decreases, due to compression, and the onset of degenerative-dystrophic formations in the annulus of the fibrosus. Cut sharp pain radiating to the ankle area of the lower extremity, buttocks, and outer thigh is the result of compression of the nerve endings between the discs in the spinal space.
- The destruction of the fibrous ring occurs in the third phase of the disease, and this is the most favorable time for the formation of a hernia in the intervertebral disc. Intense pain in the lumbar region is permanent due to significant deformation of the lumbosacral spine.
- The last, fourth stage of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, whose symptoms, treatment and rehabilitation are the most difficult in the whole process of destruction of the musculoskeletal system. This stage of the disease leads to the patient's disability, as well as to his complete or partial immobility.
However, any form of osteochondrosis should not cause fear and panic in a person; only appropriate medical treatment is required.
Lumbar osteochondrosis: symptoms and medications
Based on the results of symptomatic signs and the establishment of an appropriate diagnosis according to the stage and form of the disease, experts select the appropriate drug treatment based on the use of pharmacological combinations of different directions. The key goals of treatment in solving the problem are:
- slowing down degenerative-dystrophic processes in the lumbar zone, by applying appropriate therapeutic and prophylactic measures;
- removal of functional disorders of the spinal nerve endings;
- neutralizing painful sensations;
- functional restoration of muscle tone of the lumbosacral region;
- return of the patient to active life.
The age and sex of the patient, as well as the condition of his endocrine system, play a significant role in the choice of drug treatment method.
The main emphasis in drug exposure is placed on pain relief by appropriate selection of pharmacological analgesics. Anti-inflammatory drugs allow you to neutralize destructive processes in the muscular structures of the spinal region. The most effective pharmacological agents are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory groups.
The most effective pharmacological agents are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory groups.
With the ineffectiveness of NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), anesthetics with hormonal supplements and / or paravertebral blockade are used. In addition, the complex treatment process includes other types of pharmacological drugs, for example, sedatives, muscle relaxants, groups of drugs containing vitamins B1 and B12, which remove the effect of compression and ensure the supply of nerve tissue with micronutrients. After the end of the acute inflammatory period, drug therapy is completed, and in the period of remission, other therapeutic and prophylactic measures are applied.
Therapeutic prevention of lumbar osteochondrosis
You need to be aware that the treatment of osteochondrosis is a complex process that requires strict discipline and strict adherence to all doctor’s prescriptions. A prerequisite for complete recovery of the body is the implementation of all phases of complex therapy, which includes:
- A massage that helps relieve muscle pain, restore blood circulation in problematic areas of the lumbar spine, remove muscle tension in these parts of the body.
- Physiotherapy is a great way to rehabilitate after an illness. Absence of side effects, removal of residual stresses in the lumbar region, these are the advantages that physiotherapeutic procedures have.
- Manual therapy is able to mechanically act on the muscle tissue of the lower back in a measured manner and allow them to improve all vital processes.
It should be borne in mind that non-compliance with the recommendations of a neuropathologist for the complex therapeutic treatment of lumbar osteochondrosis is a possible appointment with a surgeon. In 90% of cases, surgical intervention on parts of the spine is a consequence of a neglected state of the disease and non-compliance with the doctor's recommendations.